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1Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens; Freud, "Beyond the Pleasure Principle."
2Supposedly there is a range of recreations so that everybody can be competent at something. Indeed these recreations are not mere whimsical gestures, but are social exercises. Skating: having wheels under your feet creates a standardized challenge in balance and moving, which is physically hygienic, and pleasurably kinetic to many people. Dancing is a mating ritual. Etc. All standard recreations are sugar-on-the-slate exercises.
3It's sad that I was so desperate for support that I cited this lame attempt at a fable. John E. Canaday, Embattled Critic (1962), pp. 177-80. A caveman starts out collecting pebbles as a hobby. Others join him, for various motives, and eventually museums and dealers are born. In 1963 I was so desperate for encouragement that I failed to notice that a pebble collection is already objectified, already a possession of objects--the activity was never brend.
5mutually obstructing, mutually nullifying purposes
6i.e. competition for the sake of competition without any other content or reason
7i.e. that they be different people
8That's a desperate stretch. Canaday is writing about collecting, and his conclusion is that the institutionalization of art manages to be edifying after all.
9Evidently a version of "Primary Study."